Tuesday, 18 July 2017

Raising the Alarm on Designer Breeds

A new competitor for purebred dog breeders emerged some years ago. Heralding a new century, new achievements, new habits. Finally, the ‘evolution’ of new breeds has arrived for those who are bored with the normal ones. Please welcome the Alusky, the Bull Boxer, the Rustalian Terrier, and probably the most admired one, the Labradoodle. The revolution of breeds has arrived!



There is now a wider diversity of varieties amongst new pets to choose from and take home. As the majority of people keep dogs with the intention of having a new social companion at home—not everyone lives, for instance, on a farm and needs the help of a herding dog—our expectations towards dogs has changed. We often want them to be funny and cute, fitting into our lifestyle and representing us to others. Dogs are definitely now more of a status symbol than an asset for everyday duties.
What could be a better choice than a dog with a funny name and a cute appearance? It is refreshing to have additional varieties of these so-called designer breeds which are produced by crossing two different purebred dogs!
Moreover, these dogs are bred with the intention of getting rid of all the negative qualities of their ancestor breeds. Based on the concept that if we mix up the two different breeds, no genetically inherited diseases are going to be passed on, the positive characteristics of the personality of the breeds remain, and most of all, they are going to be hypoallergenic, so those who have any allergy issues but love dogs can finally have one—or as many as they want!

That is how the general public has been educated and thinks. This is the PR behind designer breeds. The biggest nonsense of all on this topic, ever!

In the past when one had a Rottweiler bitch on heat and the German Shepherd from the neighbourhood jumped over the fence for some instinctual romance, the pups to be born were named mutts. Now in this new, human-created and consumer society-tailored aspect we use different, more trendy words like Rottsheppy, or Germanweiler, or whatever you can make up. Be creative! Actually, you are a designer in action!
As a bonus, here comes the most fascinating news of the whole concept: you can charge a fortune for that! Especially when you take some extra cute pictures of the brand new breed, justifying that this currently emerging race within the dogdom is absolutely too cute not to have one of them at home. This is the way these dogs are presented to the general public. Yet, as dogs are not product, but living beings, the situation itself is far more complex.

The initial idea and reason behind mixing up two different purebred dogs, as defined on Wikipedia is, ‘to avoid certain undesirable recessive traits that lead to genetic diseases that plague many purebred animals. To develop an animal that combines what are viewed as the best traits of two or more breeds.’

The very first crossbred dog starting this new habit and hype was a Labradoodle back in the 1980s, ‘created’ by Wally Conron in Australia. His intention was to create a guide dog that did not shed its fur, for a blind woman whose husband was allergic to dogs. In the thorough article about designer breeds by Louise Eccles and Harry Mount, published in 2014 in the Daily Mail, Mr. Conron, the founding father of this new trend, declared that, ‘Instead of breeding out the problems, they’re breeding them in. For every perfect one, you’re going to find a lot of crazy ones. There are a lot of unhealthy and abandoned dogs out there. Not in my wildest dreams did I imagine all of this would happen.’
Despite his intention and regret, breeding dogs and inventing new creatures is still happening right here and now, in the present, and it seems that nothing can or will even try to stop it.

The whole concept of creating new breeds this way focuses only on one main idea, and forgets a very important thing, which is the ground zero of all the problems: genetics does not work this way. You do not need to be a scientist to know that it is pure nonsensical wishful thinking to put two species together and expect only the positive aspects to pass through genetically and live on. However, people do believe this!


In his publication, Give a Dog a Bad Name, the companion animal behaviour counsellor, Jim Stephens, MSC CABC, states the following facts regarding the basics of the ideology of mixing breeds like hybrids to invigorate and enhance their genetic inheritance:

“So is the concept of hybrid vigour true? In strict scientific terms the dog mixes are not hybrids since they are all dogs and hybrids are the result of different species breeding (donkey and horse to produce a mule). But are the offspring of two differing pedigree breeds likely to be “stronger” than the individual parents? The short answer is no.
Genetic inheritance means that the offspring can inherit good or bad from either or both parents; a trait carried by a recessive gene common to both parents but not affecting them, will show in a proportion of their offspring. To be absolutely sure that this doubling up of faults does not occur, then it would be necessary to screen both for possible genetic problems. 
Most pedigree breeders are aware of inheritable faults and test breeding stock to produce pups with the best chance of being healthy and to promote and improve the breed. However, the breeders of cross pedigree dogs are unlikely to screen their breeding stock. As cross bred dogs are not breeds it is unlikely that Labradoodle breeders for example are trying to create a common recognisable type which are consistent in health, morphology and behaviour across generations and regions of the world.”

And there lies the truth. The concept of designer breed production is based on something that has never existed and never will. This foolish idea of ignoring scientific facts, combined with the ignorance that comes from self-delusion and self-deception, is likely to cause huge animal welfare problems as it leads to the creation of dogs with an absolutely unpredictable nature and physical make-up.

More and more reports emerge from vets, groomers, and trainers about the offspring of crossed purebred dogs with serious health issues, mental weaknesses, and behaviour issues. It is more than obvious now, that for example, if you mate two Labradoodles, the pups will have no similarities nor a unique and determined characteristic featuring a definite breed. You can see the subsequent generations of Labradoodles (I mention that breed all the time as it is the most well-known and a really popular one) where you cannot recognise any sort of similarities between two pups of two different litters.
But the essence of breeds should be exactly like this. If you have one pug and you mate it with another one, you know for sure that many major attributes—both physically and mentally—remain the same. That is why and how we identify it as a breed. A breed as a term itself is not only about a name—or as many still think about the existence of the pedigree—but about the general appearance and the temperament of each breed. You exactly know what the specifics are in case of a Bulldog, an Irish wolfhound and a Papillon. But you can forget this consistency with mating and ‘developing’ of designer breeds.

Breeders are often under attack by claims that they breed dogs, claiming they are unhealthy animals, however, no one has ever proved that purebred dogs are less healthy than mutts. Moreover, in the case of real breeds, which have been around for centuries and which possess the well-known and stable attributes of their particular breed, health issues can be controlled better. We know exactly which breed tends to have genetically inherited diseases, for instance. In this case breeders can check and consider at each mating how to reduce the risk of such illnesses in the forthcoming litters. These are based on scientific facts and thanks to the development of DNA testing, disorders can be monitored better than ever as the scientific technology evolves.
That is not the case regarding crossbreeding and production of designer breeds. It is nothing more than a careless experiment to see what is going to happen. However, although the breeders of purebred dogs are the focus of attention from animal welfare groups and protection propaganda for supposedly producing unhealthy dogs, I have never yet seen any campaigns about this careless genetic experimenting we currently call ‘designer breeding’.

To make the whole process even more serious, if you are about to produce litters by crossing a Great Dane and a Chihuahua, you can register your litters as well. There are organisations to do so. It makes it look more professional to hand over an official pedigree together with the pup. These people calling themselves breeders is also completely inappropriate. A breeder, excluding puppy farmers and those home breeders who mate the bitch at home with a buddy’s dog just so they can have a litter, is a professional person who takes responsibility. A breeder is aware of the general genetic terminology and has a good basic understanding of animal genetics, and a real breeder would never ever start to experiment like Dr Moreau, creating something uncontrollable. Not to mention the fact that this sort of dilettante ‘breeding’ and playing with the genes of dogs can create absolutely unpredictable animals, there are other dangers in this procedure.

As the general knowledge about these newly-emerged breeds is that they were developed by selecting certain breeds which carry specific attributes and health conditions, as people believe, to mix all the goodness together. However, they believe something that is absolutely false. Buyers of designer breeds are under the illusion that their new pet is going to be healthier than any other breeds, more intelligent and with fewer complications. A supernatural breed. A superhero. But the truth is somewhat different. There is a real danger of creating lots of mongrels this way. Not just because they are really expensive and people want to follow the fashion of keeping these designer dogs, and are unable to see the whole picture. After all, it’s up to people how they want to spend their money.

Whoever invented the term ‘designer breeds’ was really smart. These dogs are mutts. But never before has it happened that someone has paid thousands for a mutt. Whoever created this new style of dog production succeeded in building up a new brand around crossbred dogs with the promise of healthy and special dogs, with a really cute name and great appearance—perfect for showing off to the neighbours, presenting something fresh and new after the boring, trivial and well-known breeds.

The characteristics of a breed plays a significant part in animal welfare and protection, even though we often do not really think about it that way. When someone gets a pup it is vital that the dog fits into its new home. When the environment does not cope with or suit the behaviour and temperament of the dog, this can cause serious problems and conflicts that can lead to the major animal welfare problem: stray dogs.
What happens when someone realises that the designer-bred dog, that cost them a fortune, will cost them the same amount again in treatments at the vet because of the serious illnesses it possesses? What happens when that unique and special cross-bred acclaimed as a superhero dog becomes a real pain in the neck due to its uncontrollable behaviour and aggressive attitude?


The answer is also here. The RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty To Animals) UK issued its national press release on 2nd February 2016 in this matter, stating the following: ‘While the individual numbers seem low, the figures do reveal a concerning trend: while numbers of traditionally common rescue dogs drop (such as Staffies, lurchers and Jack Russell terriers), the number of ‘designer’ breeds and crossbreeds are climbing. As the popularity of ‘designer’ crossbreeds - such as Labradoodles (Labrador cross poodle), Puggles, (Pug cross beagle), and Cavachons (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel cross Bichon Frise) - booms, so do the numbers coming into our centres.’

That is what professionals who work with animals every day have been warning us about. These sort of crossbred dogs are suffering from serious skin allergies, other health issues and unpredictable temperaments. Due to this, these newly-produced so-called breeds are gaining a higher and higher presence in shelters.

All dogs are cute and deserve a good life. Even if it is a purebred dog, a crossbred dog or a crossbred dog of purebred parents and renamed a ‘designer’ breed.
With this careless and deliberate genetic experimentation it is proven again, that humanity likes to play God, but forgets and refuses to see or even consider the side effects and real consequences of their actions.

The existence of, and moreover the positive promotion of this sort of dog production has been a problem. However, I cannot really see any organisations actively campaigning against this trend. This is a situation affecting the life of breeders, animal welfare organisations, vets, shelters and kennel clubs as well. Everyone is involved and public awareness should be raised about the topic, explaining that these new breeds are not really the ones the brand is about. The promotion of both buying and starting to breed these dogs should be stopped. It will not happen automatically, so it would just be good if those who come into contact with this issue on a daily basis could start to wake up and raise their voices really loud. I myself turned the alarm on.

45 comments:

  1. Thanks for a well written piece. Would love to put a link to it on my website.

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    1. Feel free to share.
      And thank you!

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    2. Thanks. I will put a link on my website next time I get to msintenance.

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    3. You are a paid event-manager/PR for dog shows, aren't you? While there are no guarantees, statistically you *are* likely to get a healthier dog if you mix two breeds (because most dog problems are recessive) and some very good research tells us they are likely to live a little longer too. There is *nothing* wrong with mutts and mongrels and frankly in many ways we (and they) would be better off it that's all we bred. Anyone who thinks this way is buying into unscientific and culturally-questionable way of thinking that rates purity above mixed blood and dismisses the latter as being less worthy. I am all for truly good purposeful breeding but purebreds are not automatically "better" and the people who breed purebreds are not magically better breeders either. This is especially true in breeds with a huge disease burden/reduced life expectancy that is the direct result of selective breeding, often for the showring. Cavaliers, Dobermans, Pugs, French Bulldogs, Flatcoats... the list is a long one. I'd take a Cav mix over a purebred Cavalier any day of the week because while no guarantees, the risk would be lower of the dog having syringomyelia or heart disease. . I'd also take a Pug x or a Frenchie x or a Bulldog x over their purebred counterpart because they are almost always more moderate. In fact I'd go so far as to say there are *no* responsible breeders of these breeds because they are in so much trouble. Yes, there are people jumping on the 'designer-dog' bandwagon. But they're also jumping on the current fashionable-purebred bandwagon, too (hence why we are increasingly over-run with French Bulldogs/Pugs/Huskies). There are also now some really good cross-breeders - particularly of labrdoodle and cavapoos/cockapoos who are doing lots of careful health-testing. Please really think before buying into this way of thinking. It is almost always propagated by purebred apologists.

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    4. Jemima, you have some really good point of views. Though the article is not about the "competition" between purebred vs cross-bred dogs and which one is healthier.
      This article is about the marketing vs second-third generations of "designer" breeds.

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    5. I am challenging the basis of your argument. Nowhere have you stated that you are not referring to F1s. There *is* such a thing as hybrid vigour and if you had asked a population geneticist rather than a behaviourist, you would have got a different (and more valid) answer.(http://www.instituteofcaninebiology.org/blog/the-myth-of-hybrid-vigor-in-dogsis-a-myth). IAround 50% of the dogs bred by Guide Dogs UK (and elsewhere) are mixes because they find them healthy/hardy (indeed, they've recently dropped the Flatcoat as a guide dog because of the very high cancer rate). The same is true of other assistance dog charities. Considerably more labradoodles than poodles have been hip-scored in the UK - and, they have the same average hip score as their two parent breeds (as you might expect with a polygenetic problem). You have cherry-picked a quote from the RSPCA - but actually they have a strong position statement on pedigree dog breeding which is rooted in the findings of the scientific report they commissioned in 2008. (https://www.rspca.org.uk/adviceandwelfare/pets/dogs/health/pedigreedogs/health). More of these dogs coming into rescue simply reflects that the shift in the general population. Of course there's some terrible breeding of crosses going on and yep, people are climbing on the silly-name bandwagon and gullible people buying them. But is this really worse than a purebred Pug or Bulldog breeder in terms of the likelihood of the progeny being unhealthy? You write: "These sort of crossbred dogs are suffering from serious skin allergies, other health issues and unpredictable temperaments" but actually there's no evidence that they suffer any more than purebred dogs. (Indeed almost every study has shown that the opposite).Even further down the line to the multi-gem crosses, they are generally more genetically diverse than their purebred cousins and we know - now - that genetic diversity is a *good* thing. That's why the labradoodle and cockapoo/cavapoo breeders that have grouped together to raise standards in the UK have *turned down* an approach from the Kennel Club re registering them. They don't want them to be trapped in a closed gene pool that insists on uniformity. They want them to be different sizes, different coats, different colours, different temperaments because they celebrate this diversity. Nevertheless, I doubt you have any problems recognising a labradoodle when you see one. .. There is good and bad on both sides. And of course it's possible to make a case one way or another. But please try to make your argument evidence-based.

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    6. "Of course there's some terrible breeding of crosses going on and yep, people are climbing on the silly-name bandwagon and gullible people buying them."

      Yes. This is what the article is exactly about. :)

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    7. I stand in solidarity with you Jemima Harrison! Wonderfully written comments. Thank you.

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    8. Excellent replies Jemima.

      This article by Mr. Marton is highly misleading.

      It is so immensely frustrating to see laypeople on here making comments thanking a marketing and PR advisor for educating others on dog genetics, especially when I know that there is bias and laughably skewed opinions espoused by Mr. Marton. What gives me the right to make comments on the validity of science used here? I'm in the final stage of a doctorate in genetics, have published peer-reviewed research into heritability and parentage assignment using molecular biological techniques such as DNA microsatellites, and I even teach genetic inheritance with a focus on dog genetics at a university.

      For all those wanting to share this article on their websites, please do so with a big asterisk with a note that this was written by another layperson with NO formal training in what he is talking about.

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  2. Thanks for a well written piece. Would love to put a link to it on my website.

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  3. excellent articulate arguement, thanks

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  4. Cockapoo + Leghorn = Cockapoodle-Doo.

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  5. I have always stated that my GoldenDoodle dog was an highpriced mutt. That being said he is 11 yrs old now and one of the healthiest dogs I have ever owned. My vet told me last year after a thorough hour examination that my dog is one of the healthiest 10 year old dogs he has seen in a long time. I have always believed in good preventative health care. However the breeder of this dog was amazingly thorough in her breeding and placement process. My own vet and vet tech were impressed with the pup and what she had done to breed such a healthy & well bred animal. As in all things - buyer beware and due diligence is essential.

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    1. My Goldendoodle is also a very healthy dog with an amazing temperament. He's very laid back and loves everyone. My dog therapist, not for him obviously, says his breeders have done an excellent job with their breeding practices.
      My labradoodle on the other hand, from a backyard breeder, is extremely anxious and leash aggressive. Hence the dog behaviour therapist, she's the sweetest, gentlest loving baby in the house but new people and situations cause high arousal and anxiety. With a lot of work we are making steady progress.
      My point is, as with any dog, pure bred or mutt, breeding practices are so important.
      I did my due dilligence with my Goldendoodle but dropped the call with the lab. That said I love them both dearly and they are both family now.

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    2. I've had both purebred and mixed breeds and generally the mixes had longer healthier lives;however the longest living dog was a purebred Lab who lived to be almost sixteen and was robustly healthy and had a perfect and typical Lab temperament. The two purebred German Shepherds we had were not so lucky. One had a genetic eye disease( pannus) and both had temperament issues. The dog with eye disease came from a backyard breeder and the other was a rescue. I tell people that my old man Lab's long life,was possibly because he came from a genetically sound and long lived line( possibly), excellent care and plain dumb luck. He also was a rescue,that we adopted,when he was four. My big dogs years are coming t a close, but if I was younger, I would definitely research breeders before I got a puppy. There's a local GSD breeder who breeds very carefully for good structure and temperament and I would go to her. I now have two, a Lab and a hound mix, both rescues. 11 and 12 and doing well. Good luck with your dogs!

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  6. "Designer dogs" are high priced mutts with little or no testing to eliminate genetic problems, such as progressive retinal atrophy, Addisons disease, hip dysplasia, Legg Perthes disease, juvenile cataracts, etc. Reputable breeders do conduct testing before breeding, so as not to pass on inherited problems to their progeny. The affected dogs are removed from the breeding program, neutered and placed in pet homes.

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    1. A lot of epilepsy and autoimmune diseases

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    2. How much money have you lost from people preferring to buy "Designer dogs" instead of your poodles?

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  7. interesting article and very well written.
    i have a Black Russian Terrier who himself is a mixture of breeds (including the Airedale, the Giant Schnauzer, the Rottweiler, the Newfoundland, the Caucasian Shepherd Dog)
    he's 10 years old and sadly coming to the end due to hips and elbows. As to if you would call him a designer dog is debatable but no doubt he's a mixture with temperament and disposition similar to breed traits associated with the variety of breeds that make up his breed.
    love him dearly as do most that meet him

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  8. I groom many crossbreeds and own one. I have yet to come across one with any more significant health or behaviour issues than that of a pedigree. You are right about skin conditions although this is across the board and is more likely as a result of prolonged poor diet...curtesy of the criminal pet food industry and over vaccinating by vets. As for increasing numbers in shelters. I doubt this is to do with behaviour & health of the breed & is more about statistics i.e. The increase in numbers/sales of 'designer breeds' will result in increased numbers in shelters. Similar to the Staffordshire bull terrier shelter problem numbers....everyone wanted one! Maybe you haven't heard of any organisation calling for action on their breeding due to poor health/behaviour because your problem is exaggerated.

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  9. "no one has ever proved that purebred dogs are less healthy than mutts" - I have a vet friend who would disagree vehemently with this, especially regarding Pugs and Cavalier King Charles.

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    1. Yes, that is a huge topic and an interesting debate as well.
      There is one research having been done in the UK on this and the final conclusion is that there is no correlation between health and the state of being purebred/crossbred (based on the sample).

      You have mentioned 2 breeds, but there are another almost 400 breeds.
      Furthermore, When you are talking about a dog being purebred, it would be significant to now the "source". Is it from a puppy farm, the result of home breeding, bought in a pet shop with totally unknown background, or coming from a registered breeder with a pedigree? There are differences.

      Animal health is a VAST topic and it is really critical not to oversimplifies it.

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    2. ...writes the man who referred to dog breeds as different *species"...

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    3. Talks about other studies, provides no reference. Provide supporting evidence for your opinion or don't try to use "research" to make your opinions sound more credible.

      Marketing 101...

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  10. This was a very nice article. I always appreciate when someone tries to educate people on dog genetics. As a groomer, I know a lot of very unstable designer mixes. I've worked on many goldendoodles who decided they didn't like something and their first reaction was to bite. I know a lot of doodles that I love, but I also know a lot with bad attitudes or skin issues. I also see a lot of miseducation on handling and caring for the dogs just so the seller could get them out quick. Some people are being told that doodles are low maitenance dogs which is simply not true. They are very high maitenance dogs. I know there are some responsible people breeding them, but there are a lot of irresponsible people breeding mixes and the miseducation shows that these bad breeders don't care what happens to the puppies that they sell. If anything, I hope people ask breeders about health testing and find a breeder who is properly educating them and wants them to sign a spay/neuter contract and offers a health guarantee.

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    1. A poor attempt at dog genetics is far more damaging than if Atilla had just said nothing.

      The article is utter hypocrisy. Shameful.

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  11. Great article. I spend a lot of time trying to help others understand that while all dogs are deserving of loving homes, whether they are purebred, mutts or whatever, people who pay thousands of dollars for a "designer breed" are being fleeced. I suppose people are entitled to spend their money however they'd like, but I wish they'd do some research and understand what's really happening when someone decides to create a fancy sounding mutt.

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  12. Excellent article. How typical of Ms Harrison, well known hater of pedigree dogs & their breeders, to decry it.
    FACT is the dogs in her infamous program The Cavalier & Boxer were bred by PET BREEDERS not show breeders. She omitted footage of Irish & Red & White Irish Setters breeders who have successfully got rid of PRA & CLAD in their dogs by funding DNA testing & not breeding from carrier dogs. I wonder why ? Not good TV of course.
    Do designer dog breeders fund DNA & clinical health testing ? No of course not reduces their profits of course

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    1. I have no idea about your issues with Ms. Harrison and they may all be true, so shall not comment on that.

      As to your final question and answer, I do know and can comment. Yes, of course some of them do DNA testing. There may be some who do not, but that is true for all breeders of dogs. You are categorically wrong.

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  13. I am not a "paid event Manager", but a medical doctor who has dogs since 50 years, mostly pure breeds and some mixes. ...and I fully and deeply agree with the original article!!!
    To "make" mixes when the shelters are full is the lack of responsibility. And yes, you can never know could be healthier than a pure breed one, but could be much worse. The point is that since a bure breed dog is tested and the main point is also for the potential owners to have a healthy, typical dog, than at the mixes someone wants a cute one, nothing else metters. And I am sick of these names, if there is a mixbreed, it is a mix, even we call anything... So being in fond of it might show you were lucky with one, but this is the same as I adopted a lovely mix from a shelter, but I helped him to have better life, not to support weird experiments on living souls...

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    1. A medical doctor with dogs for 50 years?

      Perhaps a refresher course in some Mendelian genetics is in order to assist you with actually making a credible argument. Throwing in that you're a medical is wonderful. Get down from your Ivory tower...

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  14. I totally agree with what you are saying. My puppy is a pure toy poodle - all the traits - must walk them for at least an hour a day....break it up with 15/15 etc but you must walk any breed with a poodle .THEY NEED TO BE SOCIAL


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  15. Actually, I don't know what the point of the article is. Is it to alarm people about labels (designer), health, or scams?
    My purebred Springer Spaniel is a genetic wreck. Fortunately, I didn't pay top dollar for her. She's from a rescue.
    So, what's your point?

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    1. The major point of the whole article is that so-called designer breeds are not what they are promised to be: ultra healthy, extra cute breeds. As the whole concept is based on genetic nonsense. These are cross-bred dogs sold for big money with good marketing.

      I am sorry about your own dog.
      Just a comment. As it is from a shelter you'll never about it's origin. Whether from a puppy farm, from a backyard breeder, or a registered breeder.
      You will never know if it is the result of "breeding" or simple "mating".

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    2. I'm completely dismayed with all the issues we see with these designer dogs, the biggest one being the marketing and unconscionable greed of people. You can tell from the comments, though, that readers didn't get that message as clearly as you would have liked.
      No need to be sorry about my genetically challenged Springer. I've gotten her to an amazing level of health and happiness. That's what I'm all about.
      May we all hope for a day when people care more about lives than money.

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    3. You hit the nail on the head right there Betsy. Money is the goal hear. Unfortunately our would is dominated by it and the quickest path to it. Thankfully their are people on both sides of this original article who have raised the awareness of issues surrounding our much loved dogs. I for one have found everyone's comments interesting. At least we have all showen a common passion for our dogs.

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    4. You hit the nail on the head right there Betsy. Money is the goal hear. Unfortunately our would is dominated by it and the quickest path to it. Thankfully their are people on both sides of this original article who have raised the awareness of issues surrounding our much loved dogs. I for one have found everyone's comments interesting. At least we have all showen a common passion for our dogs.

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  16. One more thing....
    Back in the 1800s I doubt they used the word designer, but a man did work to combine traits of several breeds to create the German Wirehaired Pointer, which is now an AKC breed. I believe this is the case for many of today's known breeds. I wonder if there were complaints and warnings way back then.

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    1. Breeds have evolved through generations with very serious selection, experiments. Even though they had DNA test. The main goal was to cross breeds to achieve certain traits, mostly behavioural as dogs had a totally different function back then.

      Currently it is really just about mating two different breeds without any other concept.

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    2. Ridiculous. You're extremely biased in this article and in your misleading comments.

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  17. Pugs, basset hounds, German shepherds, boxers, cavaliers etc. To name a few purebreeds that for some stupid reason are bred to look a certain way that is detrimental to their health and quality of life.

    Crossbreeds; bred also for how they look with little to no health testing beforehand because too many backyard breeders want to cash in on their popularity.

    I work with animals and I agree and disagree with this article. The main point I am firmly behind is that there is a MUCH higher proportion of crossbreeds with behavioural issues than people realise. Cockapoos for example are extremely unpredictable.

    Responsible breeding would solve a lot of problems. Mandatory health testing, hip scoring etc for any breeders and a lisence to breed in the first place.

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